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Zangrado® & Progrado®

(1) Chordia P, MacArthur RD: Crofelemer, a novel agent for treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in HIV-infected persons. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Sep;7(7):591-600.


(2) Alonso-Castro AJ, Domínguez F, García-Carrancá A: Rutin exerts antitumor effects on nude mice bearing SW480 tumor. Arch Med Res. 2013 Jul;44(5):346-51.


(3) Frampton JE: Crofelemer: a review of its use in the management of non-infectious diarrhoea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy. Drugs. 2013 Jul;73(10):1121-9.


(4) Rossi D, Guerrini A, Paganetto G et al: Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food. Food Chem. 2013 Aug 15;139(1-4):439-47.


(5) Montopoli M, Bertin R, Chen Z et al: Croton lechleri sap and isolated alkaloid taspine exhibit inhibition against human melanoma SK23 and colon cancer HT29 cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):747-53.


(6) Alonso-Castro AJ, Ortiz-Sánchez E, Domínguez F et al: Antitumor effect of Croton lechleri Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 27;140(2):438-42.


(7) Cottreau J, Tucker A, Crutchley R et al: Crofelemer for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Feb;6(1):17-23.


(8) Pereira U, Garcia-Le Gal C, Le Gal G et al: Effects of sangre de drago in an in vitro model of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation. Exp Dermatol. 2010 Sep;19(9):796-9.


(9) Takami Y, Uto H, Takeshita M et al: Proanthocyanidin derived from the leaves of Vaccinium virgatum suppresses platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation of the human hepatic stellate cell line LI90. Hepatol Res. 2010 Apr;40(4):337-45.


(10) Tradtrantip L, Namkung W, Verkman AS: Crofelemer, an antisecretory antidiarrheal proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from Croton lechleri, targets two distinct intestinal chloride channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;77(1):69-78.


(11) Fayad W, Fryknäs M, Brnjic S et al: Identification of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters. PLoS One. 2009 Oct 2;4(10):e7238.


(12) Froldi G, Zagotto G, Filippini R et al: Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles. Phytomedicine. 2009 Aug;16(8):768-75.


(13) Miller MJ, Reuter BK, Wallace JL et al: A unique therapeutic approach to emesis and itch with a proanthocyanidin-rich genonutrient. J Transl Med. 2008 Jan 18;6:3.


(14) De Marino S, Gala F, Zollo F et al: Identification of minor secondary metabolites from the latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and evaluation of their antioxidant activity. Molecules. 2008 Jun 1;13(6):1219-29.


(15) Miller MJ, Bobrowski P, Shukla M et al: Chondroprotective effects of a proanthocyanidin rich Amazonian genonutrient reflects direct inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and upregulation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes. J Inflamm (Lond). 2007 Aug 14;4:16.


(16) Tran CD, Butler RN, Miller MJ: The role of Amazonian herbal medicine Sangre de Grado in Helicobacter pylori infection and its association with metallothionein expression. Helicobacter. 2006 Apr;11(2):134-5.


(17) Gonzales GF, Valerio LG Jr: Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006 Sep;6(5):429-44. Review.


(18) Miller MJS, Reuter BK, Bobrowski PJ et al (1996): “Mechanistic and Clinical Assessment of Zangrado®, an Extract of the Amazonian Ethnomedicine Sangre de Grado, for the Treatment of Itch” In Gil Yosipovitch, Malcolm W. Greaves, Alan B. Fleischer, Jr & Francis McGlone (Editors) Itch: Basic Mechanisms and Therapy (pp. 305-315). New York: Marcel Dekker.


(19) Lopes MI, Saffi J, Echeverrigaray S et al: Mutagenic and antioxidant activities of Croton lechleri sap in biological systems. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):437-45.


(20) Fischer H, Machen TE, Widdicombe JH et al: A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug;93(2-3):351-7.


(21) Jones K: Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)–a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Dec;9(6):877-96. Review.


(22) Risco E, Ghia F, Vila R et al: Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon’s blood) from Croton lechleri. Planta Med. 2003 Sep;69(9):785-94.


(23) Rossi D, Bruni R, Bianchi N et al: Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex. Phytomedicine. 2003 Mar;10(2-3):139-44.


(24) Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Clark M et al: Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 May;80(2-3):121-9.


(25) Williams JE: Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Dec;6(6):567-79. Review.


(26) Miller MJ, Vergnolle N, McKnight W et al: Inhibition of neurogenic inflammation by the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Sep;117(3):725-30.


(27) Miller MJ, MacNaughton WK, Zhang XJ et al: Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Jul;279(1):G192-200.


(28) Desmarchelier C, Witting Schaus F, Coussio J et al: Effects of Sangre de Drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Oct;58(2):103-8.


(29) Pieters L, De Bruyne T, Van Poel B et al: In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon’s Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents. Phytomedicine. 1995 Jul;2(1):17-22.


(30) Phillipson JD: A matter of some sensitivity. Phytochemistry. 1995 Apr;38(6):1319-43. Review.


(31) Chen ZP, Cai Y, Phillipson JD: Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood. Planta Med. 1994 Dec;60(6):541-5.


(32) Ubillas R, Jolad SD, Bruening RC et al: SP-303, an antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago). Phytomedicine. 1994 Sep;1(2):77-106.


(33) Pieters L, de Bruyne T, Claeys M et al: Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon’s blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. J Nat Prod. 1993 Jun;56(6):899-906.


(34) Itokawa H, Ichihara Y, Mochizuki M et al: A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1991 Apr;39(4):1041-2.


(35) Vaisberg AJ, Milla M, Planas MC et al: Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in Sangre de Grado extracted from Croton lechleri. Planta Med. 1989 Apr;55(2):140-3.


(36) Perdue GP, Blomster RN, Blake DA et al: South American plants II: taspine isolation and anti-inflammatory activity. J Pharm Sci. 1979 Jan;68(1):124-6.


(37) Rozhon EJ et al: Compositions and methods of treatment with proanthocyanidin polymer antidiarrheal compositions. USPTO 8,574,634: Nov 5, 2013.


(38) Quart BD et al: Method for treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. USPTO 8,067,041: Nov 29, 2011.


(39) Bobrowski PJ: Method of treating emesis and itch. USPTO 7,883,727: Feb 8, 2011.


(40) Quart BD et al: Method for treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. USPTO 7,556,83. Jul 7, 2009.


(41) Rozhon EJ et al: Method of treating secretory diarrhea with enteric formulations of proanthocyanidin polymer. USPTO 7,341,744: Mar 11, 2008.


(42) Rozhon EJ et al: Enteric formulations of proanthocyanidin polymer antidiarrheal compositions. USPTO 7,323,195; Jan 29, 2008.


(43) Bobrowski PJ: Methods and preparations of the latex from the croton species. USPTO 7,208,183: Apr 24, 2007.


(44) Tempesta MS: Methods for using proanthocyanidin polymers having antiviral activity. USPTO 5,494,661: Feb 27, 1996.


(45) Winter REK et al: Wound-healing composition and method. USPTO 5,474,782: Dec 12, 1995.


(46) Tempesta M: Proanthocyanidin polymers having antiviral activity and methods of obtaining same. USPTO 5,211,944: May 18, 1993.


(47) Lewis WH et al: Wound-healing composition. USPTO 5,156,847: Oct 20, 1992.

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